Review of Environmental Legislation for the Regulatory Control of Nanomaterials

Publication Date : 2011
1,203 Visited Entry Date : 2013/04/15


Document type Report
Subject Regulatory & Legal Aspect
The first objective of this study was to review environmental legislation for waste, water and other relevant acts as regards their legal coverage of nanomaterials and, where possible, implementation on the ground, using a systematic methodological framework.
The second objective was to identify and describe legislative and implementation gaps in environmental legislation, including details on whether gaps relate to a lack of legal coverage, limitations in technical capacities or dependences on other legislation.
A final objective was to hold a stakeholder workshop to act as a sounding board against which to test the conclusions of an Interim Report generated under the study, as well as gathering up-to-date information on Member State activities regarding nanomaterials and their potential environmental impacts. This workshop was held on 20th June 2011 at DG Environment, Brussels, Belgium and comments received at the workshop have been integrated into this Final Report.
The focus of the report is on possible releases of engineered nanomaterials into the environment, and the extent of coverage of these releases under EU environmental legislation. The study considers the potential risks associated with nanomaterials in general, while at the same recognising that there are differences in the potential risks posed by different nanomaterials.
Executive Summary

1. Introduction
1.1 Background to the study      
1.2 Objectives of the study      
1.3 Methodological framework      
1.4 Structure of the report      

2. Nanomaterials in the Environment
2.1 Potential exposure pathways and environmental concentrations of nanomaterials      
2.2 The scale of environmental exposure      
2.3 Limitations in the availability of ecotoxicological data for nanomaterials      
2.4 The potential role of the Precautionary Principle in regulating nanomaterials      

3. Waste Framework Directive 2008/98/EC
3.1 Introduction      
3.2 Exposure pathways for nanomaterials in waste      
3.3 General Objectives and Scope      
3.4 Definitions      
3.5 Categorisation as Hazardous Waste      
3.6 Controls on hazardous waste      
3.7 The Waste Hierarchy      
3.8 Reuse      
3.9 Recycling      
3.10 Recovery      
3.11 Waste Oils      
3.12 Permits      
3.13 Waste Management Plans      
3.14 Penalties and Enforcement      
3.15 The coverage of nanomaterials under the Waste Framework Directive      

4. Decision 2000/532/EC on the List of Waste
4.1 Introduction      
4.2 The coverage of nanomaterials under the List of Waste      

5. Directive 2000/53/EC on end-of-life vehicles
5.1 Introduction      
5.2 Potential presence of nanomaterials in end-of-life vehicles      
5.3 Coverage      
5.4 Prevention (Requirements to limit the use of hazardous substances in vehicles)     
5.5 Treatment      
5.6 Recycling and recovering      
5.7 Coding standards/ dismantling information      
5.8 Reporting and information      
5.9 The coverage of nanomaterials under the End-of-Life Vehicles Directive      

6. Landfill Directive 1999/31/EC
6.1 Introduction      
6.2 Nanomaterials in landfills      
6.3 General objectives and scope      
6.4 Definitions      
6.5 Classes of landfill and waste accepted      
6.6 Waste and treatment not acceptable in landfills      
6.7 Permit conditions      
6.8 Waste acceptance procedures      
6.9 Control and monitoring procedures in the operational phase      
6.10 Implementation      
6.11 The coverage of nanomaterials under the Landfill Directive      

7. WEEE Directive (2002/96/EC)
7.1 Introduction      
7.2 Nanomaterials in electrical and electronic equipment      
7.3 Recovery target      
7.4 Product design      
7.5 Recycling treatment      
7.6 Information for users      
7.7 Information for treatment facilities      
7.8 Adaptation to scientific and technical progress      
7.9 Amendments of the European Parliament to the WEEE Proposal of the Commission      
7.10 The coverage of nanomaterials under the WEEE Directive      

8. Directive 2002/95/EC on RoHS
8.1 Introduction      
8.2 Restricted substances in EEE      
8.3 Review and amendment of restricted substances in Annex II      
8.4 The coverage of nanomaterials under the RoHS Directive      

9. Packaging and Packaging Waste Directive 1994/62/EC
9.1 Introduction      
9.2 Nanomaterials in packaging      
9.3 Scope      
9.4 Reuse systems      
9.5 Recovery and recycling      
9.6 Identification system      
9.7 Minimizing negative impacts on the environment through releases during disposal      
9.8 Information systems      
9.9 The coverage of nanomaterials under the Packaging and Packaging Waste Directive      

10. Directive 86/278/EEC on the protection of the environment, and in particular of the soil, when the sewage sludge is used in agriculture (Sewage sludge Directive)
10.1 Introduction      
10.2 Entry of nanomaterials into sewage sludge and subsequent exposure pathways      
10.3 Definition of treated sludge      
10.4 Limit values      
10.5 Analysis and Sampling (Article 9)     
10.6 Article 13 on adaptation to technical and scientific progress (Article 13)     
10.7 The coverage of nanomaterials under the Sewage Sludge Directive      

11. Water Framework Directive 2000/60/EC
11.1 Introduction      
11.2 Exposure pathways for nanomaterials entering European waters      
11.3 Key objectives of the Water Framework Directive relevant to nanomaterials      
11.4 Nanomaterials as priority substances      
11.5 Controlling specific pollutants      
11.6 Monitoring water status      
11.7 Triggers for action to reduce pollution      
11.8 The coverage of nanomaterials under the Water Framework Directive      

12. Directive 2008/105/EC on EQS in the Field of Water Pollution
12.1 Introduction      
12.2 Establishing EQS for nanomaterials      
12.3 Environmental monitoring of nanomaterials      
12.4 The coverage of nanomaterials under the EQS Directive      

13. Directive 2006/118/EC on the protection of groundwater against pollution and deterioration
13.1 Introduction      
13.2 Criteria for assessing groundwater chemical status      
13.3 Procedure for assessing groundwater chemical status      
13.4 Identification of significant and sustained upward trends and the definition of starting points for trend reversals       
13.5 Monitoring requirements      
13.6 Measures to prevent or limit inputs of pollutants into groundwater      
13.7 The coverage of nanomaterials under the Groundwater Directive      

14. Urban Waste Water Directive 91/271/EEC
14.1 Introduction      
14.2 Exposure pathways for nanomaterials into waste water      
14.3 Treatment requirement       
14.4 Prior regulations and authorisations for the discharge of industrial waste water      
14.5 The re-use of sludge      
14.6 Monitoring requirements      
14.7 The coverage of nanomaterials under the Urban Waste Water Directive      

15. Drinking Water Directive 98/83/EC
15.1 Introduction      
15.2 Nanomaterials in drinking water      
15.3 Quality standards      
15.4 Monitoring      
15.5 Remedial action and restrictions in use      
15.6 The of coverage of nanomaterials under the Drinking Water Directive      

16. Directive 96/82/EC on the control of major-accident hazards involving dangerous substances (Seveso II Directive)
16.1 Introduction      
16.2 Nanomaterials in industrial facilities      
16.2 Nanomaterials in industrial facilities      
16.2 Nanomaterials in industrial facilities      
16.3 Defining dangerous substances      
16.4 Volume thresholds      
16.5 Article 4: Derogation and safeguard clauses      
16.6 The coverage of nanomaterials under SEVESO II      

17. Air Quality Directive 2008/50/EC
17.1 Introduction      
17.2 Nanomaterials in air      
17.3 Limit values and alert thresholds for the protection of human health       
17.4 Assessment regime      
17.5 Reference measurement methods      
17.6 Sampling points      
17.7 Contributions from natural sources      
17.8 Exceedance attributable to winter-sanding or salting of roads      
17.9 Air quality plans      
17.10 Short-term action plans      
17.11 Transboundary air pollution      
17.12 The coverage of nanomaterials under the Air Quality Directive      

18. Regulation (EC) No 66/2010 on the EU Ecolabel
18.1 Introduction      
18.2 Nanomaterials under the EU Ecolabel      
18.3 Common approach to addressing nanomaterials under EU Ecolabel criteria      
18.4 Substitution of hazardous substances      
18.5 Links with the CLP Regulation and REACH      
18.6 The coverage of nanomaterials under the EU Ecolabel Regulation      

19. Summary of Feedback from Member States on Activities on Nanomaterials
19.1 Introduction      
19.2 Common project on national nanomaterials databases      
19.3 Belgium      
19.4 Denmark      
19.5 Estonia      
19.6 France      
19.7 Germany      
19.8 Italy      
19.9 The Netherlands      
19.10 Portugal      
19.11 Sweden      

20. Conclusions

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