State of the Science Literature Review: Nano Titanium Dioxide Environmental Matters

Publication Date : 2012
Code : 151235
398 Visited Entry Date : 2017/04/22

UNITED KINGDOM

English
Volume 486 Pages
Document type Guide & Procedure
Subject Regulatory & Legal Aspect ; Occupational Safety
Nanomaterials Iron oxide ; Silver ; Palladium
Application/Product Health Care & Cosmetics,Home Appliance
Summary
        This report summarizes the work of the Expert Panel on Nanotechnology (the panel) established by the Council of Canadian Academies (the Council), to assess the state of knowledge with respect to existing nanomaterial properties and their health and environmental risks, which could underpin regulatory perspectives on needs for research, risk assessment and surveillance.
This study by the Expert Panel on Nanotechnology (the panel) represents a comprehensive effort to address the current state of scientific knowledge regarding nanomaterials, and how that should guide the approach taken to steward the process through which nanomaterials are responsibly introduced into Canadian trade and commerce.
This report focuses on the scientific and technological considerations (interpreted broadly) that in part define and can help to meet the challenge of developing an appropriate regulatory regime for engineered nanomaterials. A substantial part of the report is therefore devoted to assessing what is known, and not known, about the health and environmental risks of nanomaterials. Moreover, the report will offer an account of the unique regulatory challenges presented by nanotechnologies in light of findings about the nature and behaviour of nanoscale materials more generally. The report includes discussion of some of the reasons why there are gaps in our knowledge — e.g., the lack of fully developed measurement tools, test methods and material characterizations — and thus indicates where to give priority in order to develop a more comprehensive account of the potential health and environmental risks of nanomaterials.
Content

1. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

 

2. PURPOSE OF REPORT

 

3. LITERATURE AND GRAY INFORMATION SEARCH STRATEGY

   3.1 Dialog® Search Strategy and Results

      3.1.1 Dialog® Search Parameters

      3.1.2 Dialog® Search Procedure and Results

   3.2 Targeted Search of Databases, Journals, and Conference Proceedings and Results

      3.2.1 Nano-specific Journals

      3.2.2 Conference Proceedings

      3.2.3 Databases of Nanotechnology Research

   3.3 Contacts with Industry and Academic Experts

   3.4 Results and Areas for Future Work

 

4. BACKGROUND OF TITANIUM DIOXIDE AND ITS USE

   4.1 Titanium Dioxide Physical and Chemical Properties

   4.2 Overview of Applications of Titanium Dioxide

      4.2.1 Historical Applications of Titanium Dioxide

      4.2.2 Applications of Nanoscale Titanium Dioxide

 

5. LIFE CYCLE OVERVIEW

   5.1 Manufacture of Nano-TiO2

      5.1.1 Manufacture of Nano-TiO2 for Sunscreens

      5.1.2 Manufacture of Nano-TiO2 for Other UV Stabilizers

      5.1.3 Manufacture of Nano-TiO2 for Photocatalysts

   5.2 Processing of Nano-TiO2

      5.2.1 Processing of Nano-TiO2 for Sunscreens

      5.2.2 Processing of Nano-TiO2 for Other UV Stabilizers

      5.2.3 Processing of Nano-TiO2 for Photocatalysts

   5.3 Use of Nano-TiO2

      5.3.1 Use of Nano-TiO2 in Sunscreens

      5.3.2 Use of Nano-TiO2 as Other UV Stabilizers

      5.3.3 Use of Nano-TiO2 as Photocatalysts

   5.4 End of Life

      5.4.1 End-of-Life of Sunscreens

      5.4.2 End-of-Life of Other UV Stabilizers

      5.4.3 End-of-Life of Photocatalysts

 

6. EXPOSURE PATHWAYS

   6.1 Exposure Sources

      6.1.1 Manufacturing

      6.1.2 Processing

      6.1.3 Use

      6.1.4 End-of-Life of Consumer Products

   6.2 Transport Mechanisms

      6.2.1 Transport Mechanisms in Surface Water

      6.2.2 Transport Mechanisms in Groundwater

      6.2.3 Transport Mechanisms in Soil

      6.2.4 Transport Mechanisms in Air

   6.3 Points and Routes of Exposure

      6.3.1 Dermal Exposures

      6.3.2 Inhalation Exposures

      6.3.3 Ingestion Exposures

   6.4 Receptor Populations

 

7. TOXIC EFFECTS

   7.1 Health Effects

      7.1.1 Inhalation Studies or Effects

      7.1.2 Dermal Studies or Effects

      7.1.3 Oral Administration Studies or Effects

   7.2 Ecological Effects

      7.2.1 Aquatic Life

      7.2.2 Terrestrial Life

   7.3 Additional Literature

 

8. SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS

   8.1 Sampling Techniques

      8.1.1 Sampling Techniques Suited for Surface Waters

      8.1.2 Sampling Techniques Suited for Sediments

      8.1.3 Sampling Techniques Suited for Soil

      8.1.4 Sampling Techniques Suited for Groundwater

      8.1.5 Sampling Techniques Suited for Air

   8.2 Analytical Techniques

      8.2.1 Analytical Techniques for Size Fractionation

      8.2.2 Analytical Techniques for Size Distribution

      8.2.3 Analytical Techniques for Surface Area

      8.2.4 Analytical Techniques for Chemical Analysis

      8.2.5 Analytical Techniques for Direct Visualization

      8.2.6 Analytical Techniques for Mineral Phase/Internal Structure

 

9. REFERENCES

 

APPENDIX A DIALOG® SEARCH RESULTS

   A-1 Potentially Applicable Titles for Production, Use, Distribution, and Disposal of Nano-TiO2

   A-2 Potentially Applicable Titles for Exposure Pathways and Transport Mechanisms

   A-3 Potentially Applicable Titles for Toxicological and Ecological Effects of NanoTiO2

   A-4 Potentially Applicable Titles for Sampling and Analysis of Nano-TiO2 in the Environment

   A-5 Non-applicable Titles
Organization
  • World Health Organization Published by
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